自我

一天和一个朋友谈到“自我”的问题,由于我一直在强调“自我”的重要性,她神色慌张,因为“自我”是上帝信仰的天敌,因为我们活在一个自私自利的社会中。但我说,上帝创造的每个人都是极其独特而尊贵的,上帝对每一个人都有祂的美意,如果我们能活出那个独特的“自我”,就是荣耀了上帝的创造力。相反,如果我们只是庸庸碌碌地过活,对“自我”没有更高的期盼和要求,就是羞辱了上帝的创造,亏欠了祂的荣耀。

独特的那个“自我”需要被强化,一是管理者思维的木桶原理,优先增加最短的那根木条以便装更多的水,二是艺术家思维的兴趣天赋优先,专注发展最长的那根木条,由此带动其他木条的增长。其实两种方法都不能决定最后能装多少水,只是我个人倾向于后者,因为前者虽然发展了短项,但过程不一定享受,带着功利心;后者虽然只发展了长项,但过程却很享受,不一定成功,却无悔。所以历代艺术家,不是先学会了做人,而是先学会了做艺术,才学会了做人。这在外行看来的确不可思议。

最近读到克尔凯郭尔的《致死的疾病》,才明白我说的“自我”并非“自我中心”的那个“自我”(first self,基督徒所说的“老我”),而是“成为那个上帝建立的深层次的自我”(deeper self,新我)。按克尔凯郭尔的观点,人之所以拒绝上帝,是因为人不愿意在绝望中成为那个深层次的自我,或者不承认那个深层次的自我是上帝的建立,而要绝望地故意成为自己建立的自我。因为那个深层次自我是以上帝作为衡量一切的标准。所以他说绝望是罪,这里说的罪不同于苏格拉底”罪即无知(sin is ignorance)”中的“罪”,有罪的人并非无知,而是明明知道上帝建立了深层次的自己,却不愿意成为那个深层次的自己。故此得出结论:罪是知而不行。

克尔凯郭尔是讲故事的高手,以下是他在《致死的疾病》一书中讲的两则寓言,前则讲的是“马甲”、“面具”、“老我(first self)”,我们常常扮演那个农夫。后则讲的是上帝为我们预备的尊贵的独特的“新我”,一个更深层次的“自我”(deeper self),我们却不敢相信。

有一个农夫,赤着脚去镇上赶集。卖掉货物,他赚了一大笔钱,于是给自己买了一双鞋子和袜子,又去酒馆痛饮了一番。回家的路上,农夫酒性发作,横卧在马路中间,睡着了。这时,一辆马车飞驰过来,马夫对农夫吼道:“快闪开,不然我就要照你的脚压过去了。”农夫醒来,看看穿着新鞋新袜的脚,觉得不像是自己的脚,便冲着车夫喊:“来压吧,反正又不是我的脚。”

在一个幅员辽阔的帝国,有一位威名赫赫的国王,每个公民以一睹他的尊荣为至高的荣耀。他膝下有一个天生丽质的公主,连世界上最英俊的王子,都不敢奢望能娶到她。在这个帝国的偏远山区,还有一个穷困丑陋的小伙子,每天通过给人做苦力来糊口。一天,国王突然发现了这个小伙子,决定招他做驸马,并向全国发出了告示。小伙子识字的同伴看到告示,忙兴冲冲地找到那个小伙子,说:“国王要找你做女婿了。”小伙子听了,气得浑身颤栗,对同伴说:“国王怎么可能看上我。你明明知道我又穷又丑,还开这样的玩笑羞臊我,你太不厚道了!”

有关《致死的疾病》:

《致死的疾病》(丹麦语:Sygdommen til Døden;英文:The sickness unto death)是丹麦思想家、哲学家、神学家克尔凯郭尔(Kierkegaard)用假名安提-克里马库斯(Anti-Climacus)发表的思想著作,于一八四九年七月三十日在丹麦哥本哈根出版。书中所说的“致死的疾病”喻指绝望,这本书系统的讨论了自我、实现自我和绝望、信仰之间的关系。这本书不仅对唤醒人的自我意识,启发人认识自我、成为自我有着重要意义,也对后世的存在主义思想有着深远影响。更多资料…

Thirty Years of Landscaping

Thirty Years of Landscaping
The roadmap of landscape in contemporary Yunnan art
written by He Libin

The year of 1979, was an important one for many Chinese. With the People’s Republic of China witnessing its first year of opening-up and its 30th anniversary, the government’s cultural and art policies began to loosen up. This year, artists working in Kunming, Yunnan, such as Ding Shaoguang, Jiang Tiefeng, Yao Zhonghua, Wang Jinyuan, Liu Shaohui and Wang Ruizhang formed an artist group named “Shen Society.” They  chose the name “Shen Society” for several reasons: first, 1979 was the Year of Monkey in Chinese Lunar Calendar, and one meaning of “Shen” in Chinese language was “monkey;” second, the Monkey King was a popular figure among Chinese; and third, they wanted to express the desire to pursue freedom and truth and uplift social justice, as “Shen” can also mean “uplift.” This group of artists often got together to discuss art, and chose to learn the idea and style from Cubism and Fauvism in modern Western art and to pursue the language of formal beauty in art. In 1980, Shen Society organized an exhibition of 120 artworks from 23 artists in the Museum of Yunnan Province. In the following two years, they organized some artists to hold exhibitions in Beijing and Hong Kong. Their paintings in the main have a tendency of flat painting and decoration deformation, characterized by gorgeous colors, and, through the portrait of the life of minorities in Yunnan, exhibits an aesthetic style featuring intertwined illusion and emotion, exoticism and imagination. The new style, just like a fresh breeze in China’s painting community, at that time still imbued with the style of revolutionary realism in the Cultural Revolution, together with the contention about the style and subject of the fresco1 in Capital Airport, triggered a massive debate about formal beauty across the country, the first nationwide sensation started by Yunnan art. At that time, some younger Yunnan artists were still in college, such as Mao Xuhui in Yunnan College of Art, Zhang Xiaogang and Ye Yongqing in Sichuan College of Art, and Mao Dehai in Northeast Normal University, who asked his university to assign him to a job in Kunming after graduation. These young people, active in thinking, got together naturally, maintained correspondence with each other at college, and went together in Kunming during vacation to watch exhibition, go out for living sketch or discuss art all day and or night. Similarly, they also drew nutrition from Western modernism. But unlike the artists of Shen Society, they accepted the cultural heritages such as expressionism, surrealism, symbolism and existential philosophy. Undergoing the adolescent frustration and rash, they found the Western modernistic ideas and philosophies, particularly those after the impressionism, somehow consistent with their mentality. At that time, artists such as Zhang Ding, Wu Guanzhong and Yuan Yunsheng frequently went to Yunan to sketch, hold exhibition or give lecture. Young artists like Mao Xuhui were also influenced by the concept of “formal beauty2″ raised by these artists. But when they saw the exhibition of German expressionism in the summer of 1982 in Beijing, they were tremendously excited and shocked, realizing that it was expressionism that was the right approach to express their feeling and mentality. Another trace was their experience of traveling to Guishan Mountain several times for live sketch. In 1979, Mao Xuhui, Zhang Xiaogang, Ye Yongqing and Yang Yijiang, still college students, went to Guishan Mountain to sketch. Guishan, which they long yearned for, was a village of minority Sani people located about 100 kilometers away from Kunming, a pastoral place very much resembling the scene in the paintings of 19th century French Barbizon School artist Jean Francois Millet. Before them, many senior artists also went there and portray Guishan with the Soviet realistic approach and expressionist language of light. Mao Xuhui and his colleagues also used similar language in their expression, but they always had a feeling that those splendid portraits somehow fell short of their feelings. In the following several years, they went to Guishan several times and gradually found the language that suited their feelings. Mao Xuhui’s “Mother of Laterate: Guishan Series” accentuated the tremendous energy concealed in the red soil, and the people, the trees and herds growing from the red soil are gushing, flushing and erupting, with burning primitiveness and lust everywhere. Zhang Xiaogang’s “Behind Mountain” and “Evening Breeze” exhibit the blunt and rough touches like Van Gauge, portraying the primitiveness and hardship of life in a mountainous village. Ye Yongqing drew upon the composition principles of Western classic fresco in his “Sani Sisters in Shepherd Village,” “Sheep Killed by Wolf in Front of Village,” “Blind Girl Going Home” and “Startled Bird” etc, and sketched a series of pastoral lyric pictures by setting some narrative details and scenes. It was the landscape of Guishan that shed some light onto and awakened their mind long sealed in urban life, and presented a stark contrast with their status and mentality in the city. Back in city, Mao Xuhui finished his artworks like “Red Volume” and “Private Space,” depicting a moving volume struggling to shake off the outside shackles and pursuing the true self when running, reflecting the fact that the confrontation against social ideology is evolving to resistance to everything outside self. Life and dream, reality and illusion, intertwined in his chaotic think, are scarcely distinct from each other. In June 1985, Mao Xuhui, Zhang Xiaogang, Pan Dehai and Zhang Long brought their artworks with them and held an exhibition named “Neo-figurative” in the Art Gallery of Jing’an District, Shanghai. What is “neo-figurative”? Mao Xuhui explained in the introduction of the exhibition: “…the concept of ‘neo-figurative’ is devised in an attempt to transfer art away from a vulgar sociological tool and the whole set of false models and social interests that are resulted and to art itself, and to free artists from the position of dependent and slave and restore them to the height of noumenon of man.” Thereafter, the neo-figurative school held several exhibitions in Nanjing, Kunming, Chongqing and the U.S., and later launched activities like “Southwest Art Study Group,” until the full stop when the majority of the members of “neo-figurative” participated in “China Modern Art Exhibition” in 1989.

After 1990s, the artists returned to the status of everyday life, when Mao Xuhui painted “Everyday Epic” series and “Patriarch Series: Vocabulary about Power,” Zhang Xiaogang began to work on “Big Family” which later attracted wide attention, and Ye Yongqing was drawing “Big Poster.” In addition, a school of even younger artists began their journey with a range of exhibition activities: “1992 Painting Exhibition,” “Present Status,” “Individualism,” “Types of Life,” “Urban Personality,” “First Exhibition of Oil Painting Society” etc. Landscape was presented in their artworks with characteristics different the “neo-figurative” school in two ways: first, the anxious sentiment was manifested, and man appears confrontational with landscape; second, the identity of self was blurred, lost, and drifting in weightlessness. In 1992, Zhu Fadong carried out his action of “Notice Seeking Lost Person” in Kunming by looking himself by posting notices seeking himself all over the city in order to express his generation’s feeling of the loss and seeking of self identity in early 1990s. Zeng Xiaofeng’s “Electric Saw and Landscape” juxtaposes electric saw, a symbol of modern industry, and landscape in the same picture, in which the savage electric saw is ripping and devouring ancient architecture and natural landscape, thereby exhibiting fierce clashes between industrial and natural landscapes. Luan Xiaojie in his “Trunk and Branch Series” treats human and tree as a whole body, producing a Delvaux-style grotesquery and surrealistic scene. The objects in the picture, resembling both amputated limbs and muscles, stack in the ambiguous space, glittering with queer shine, while the shallow trunks and branches appear illusive and fragile. Wu Jun’s “Dusk Shadow in Wind” portrays blurred human figure floating above a dilapidated city, with the picture pervaded by endless anxiety. Duan Yuhai’s “Beauty and Limousine” puts a pretty woman, limousine and cosmetics in the same picture, presenting the new orientations and changes in the Chinese society after the 1990s. Li Ji’s “Fashion Girl” also employs the language of gaudiness and juxtaposition by putting a woman with heavy makeup and her pet in a single picture, erotic yet exotic, just like Yamato-e in modern time. In their artworks, everything from the confrontation between humans and their surroundings to drifting in weightlessness is illustrating a kind of potential anxiety and anguish, collectively reflecting the chaos of value, loss of individual identity and the spiritual journey to regain it, juxtaposed by China’s faster process of market reform and urbanization as well as aggravated destruction of natural environment after the 1990s. Their artworks were a reflection of that generation of artists’ collective experience of urban life, and directly heralded the look of the artworks of artists born in the 1970s and 1980s.

After 2000, consumerism and fashion have become the mainstream value in urban life, and the modern popular culture, involving film, magazine, web, cartoon, pervasive advertisements, has constitutes the daily environment for urban dwellers. Artists grown up in such an environment are clearly split in aesthetic approaches: some inherit the scene of anxiety from the previous generation of artists, reflected in their artworks by the tendencies of self-ostracism and anti-metropolitan; others uphold and practice the aesthetics of transient coolness, clamor and popularity, in order to acquire new inspirations and art resources by plunging themselves into the scene of metropolitan consumerist culture. Whether they are anti-metropolitan or putting themselves in metropolitan, landscape exhibits a tendency of virtualization and patching up. Since 2003, several important art events heralded the début of post-1970s and 1980s artists. Exhibitions such as “Health Checkup,” “Sheep Is Coming,” “Altitude Sickness,” “Ultraviolet Radiation,” “Entertainment Is Paramount” etc. on the one hand highlighted the young artists’ sensitivity to and concern about
the relationship between their growth and changes of their surroundings, and on the other hand reflected the divergence of the above-mentioned aesthetic perspectives. In 2003, He Jia began to draw his “Balloon Man” series, which portrays a range of human-like figures without clear identity or complexion, with shining colors all over, drifting or walking in the city or amidst natural sceneries which are thin and transparent, beautiful but illusive just like these balloon men. Zhang Jinxi’s “Glass Man” series exerts the beauty of transparency to the utmost, whereby the body of the glass man reflects the surrounding landscape, which together with the man presents a sense of illusive yet transient vanity. Guo Peng recorded the landscape in Kunming Park with his camera and endowed strong colors to these traditional garden views with manual rendering. Nevertheless, these pictures look in every way like frames of exotic images imbued with a smell of decadence and mustiness. Yu Hua creates an image of a rabbit mingled with man, placing themselves in a metropolitan like a fairy tale, consciously getting lost in the urban labyrinth. Contrary to these artists, some others followed the tradition of expressionism and deliver a primitive and remote flavor with conflicting and turbulent pictures and heavy yet provocative colors. In Zhao Leiming’s paintings, men are always placed in closed space, where even natural landscape appears suffocating, and distorted human body locked in the space is like imprisoned beast struggling. Lan Qingxing’s “Crazy Talk,” “Wind Talk” and “Wind and Rain” portray weeds, starry sky, red trees and red human body to express the desire of man to leave the clamorous urban and return to simple nature. However, would therefore going back to the past be meaningful? He did not give an answer. Shi Zhimin went further with his “Glacial Epoch,” where there is no civilization, no urban, nor the natural landscape today, but the extinction of everything, cold and silent.

As a cross section, the artworks of the above-mentioned artists represent the true situation of post-1970s and 80s artists. Overall, they are more diversified, and values individual difference and experience more, and their artworks also exhibit diversity and new aesthetic tendencies. But this group of artists also generally manifests a tendency of vanity. Whether they are committed to this country or ostracize themselves to somewhere far away, would such approaches actually solve the conflicts and dilemmas in the real world, and deliver an everlasting value to lend the artists experience and enlightenment? Answers to these questions are expected only after necessary observations.

Time keeps on changing, and each generation has their own dilemmas and problems to face and solve, and to confront with the perpetual beings in nature; what the Yunnan artists in the 1940s saw were beautiful landscape and Eden-like minority culture, in which they were enchanted; what the artists in the 1950s saw were the perching images in their inner feeling, where they found their mother of spirituality; artists of the 1960s held themselves slightly aloof when faced with the nature; the disruptive situation of the artists of the 1970s had them see nothing but a realm of vanity whether they placed themselves in urban or returned to nature, whereas artists in the 1980s were lost and enchanted in the landscape of alienation….Facing the eternal nature, what insight do the artists arrive at? Could they acquire from the nature a fundamental wisdom that cuts across everything in the universe, so as to provide mankind today and tomorrow with an enriching and meaningful way of migration in this world? This should be the shared mission and direction for several generations of Yunnan artists.

March 9, 2009 at Yun Yi Xuan, Kunming

Notes:

1. Capital Airport fresco: On September 29, 1979, then China’s largest modernized airport – Capital International Airport, was completed, when 7 giant frescoes in its lounge were also unveiled to the public. Among them was a 27 meters long and 3.4 meters long fresco titled “Water-splashing Festival – Paean of Life” drawn by Yuan Yunsheng, portraying the scene of Dai people (a minority ethnic group living in Southwest China, particularly Yunnan) celebrating their Water-splashing Festival. The fresco consists of two parts: on the front side of the wall was scene of Dai people carrying water, splashing water and dancing; on a smaller wall to the east were scenes of bathing and courting. Because of nudity in this bathing part, the fresco was covered with a curtain several months after it was unveiled for show. On the eve of China’s National Day on October 1, a grand ceremony of completion was held for Capital International Airport, one of the key national construction projects shortly after the Cultural Revolution. The frescos in the lounge unveiled at the same time became a sensational event for China’s art community that year. Among all these frescos, “Water-splashing Festival” was the largest one, and the first artwork appearing in public space with nude human body ever since the People’s Republic of China was found in 1949, triggering widespread debate in media at that time.

2. Formal beauty: In 1981, artist Wu Guanzhong published an article titled “Content Determines Form?” in the 3rd issue of the journal Art that year, for the first time raising the question of “formal beauty” in art. Wu argued that in artworks, the form could came to existence before the content, a proposition that retorting the principle of “content determines form” in art in the Cultural Revolution and triggering a nationwide debate about content and form.

每个人命中都有一个阴沟

害怕有一千种,恐惧只有一个
快乐有一千种,平安只有一个
罪行有一千种,罪性只有一个
妥协有一千种,赦免只有一个
——北村题记

北村的《我和上帝有个约》读完,终于证实了我几年前的一个恐惧,那就是每个人命中都有一个阴沟,一不小心就要翻船,谎言、假帐、假学历、假身份、情人、奸淫、杀人越货、灰色收入、不义之财、骄傲自满、自以为义……只是有的没有被主人隐藏好,暴露在众目睽睽之下,船就翻了,有的隐藏得非常好,天知地知你知我知,然后我把你灭了,没人知了,也有的阴沟因为离今天太遥远,过了追诉期,比如儿时的谎言,无人问津,但并不代表人们会因此而放松警惕、卸掉恐惧、远离噩梦,一个被称之为心病的东西在体内时隐时现。世上没有义人,一个也没有,良知深处有一个声音会追问我们所做过的一切,包括那些我们铁定认为没有错的行为,和那些无意间说出来的理由十足的谎言。除非有一天这个阴沟被遮盖,否则恐惧永远也不会从人心中退去。哪怕在那些老实人心里,哪怕在理想主义者深处。

北村力图在故事中呈现认罪悔改在生命转变中决定性瞬间的力量,也就是道破事实真相,让命中的那个阴沟在人面前更在上帝面前得以坦然暴露,哪怕冒着被审判的危险,如同杀人犯陈步森为了让被害人的妻子冷薇恢复记忆,不惜冒着被冷薇认出来被揪去枪毙的危险,依然左顾右盼义无反顾地去爱她——这个亲眼目睹他杀害自己丈夫的杀人犯,然而他却这样去做了,他知道在他心中有一个律,这个律显然不是来自他自己,而是良知,他更体会到罪不是我们所能背负的,因为罪让我们活得太累(尽管已经到了世上没有一个人可以指控他杀人的地步,除了其他几个同伙外)。小说后半截北村展开关于原谅关于宽恕关于爱的挣扎,加害者反复挣扎之后决定认罪悔改,企盼被害者能给予原谅,然后自首接受审判,被害者却故意忘记加害者曾经对她做过的一切,非要将他千刀万剐,死不宽恕,如同鲁迅死前的名言“一个也不宽恕”,生命因此呈现出质的区分,罪人悔改认罪,生命变得自由而阔达,被害者在恨中自义、自怜,如同那头凶猛的熊不停地舔冰块里混着诱饵的匕首,匕首划到舌头流出腥味的血,还以为是敌人的血,越加兴奋,最后身亡。而那些旁观者凭着血气为各自的学术理由、收视率、和自以为义,在悔改与宽恕的挣扎之外摇旗呐喊,从始至终与当事人无关,与他们自己的灵魂无关,到头来一个都不如那个杀人犯陈步森。小说就在逃避与悔改、怨恨与原谅、恐惧与平安的张力中铺展、辩论、犹豫、拿定。故事很精彩,扣人心悬,这里不一一赘述。

关于小说里的信仰表述,我只觉得,北村为了不让小说落入福音单张的水平,在表述基督信仰价值观方面显得有些闪烁其词,在汉语文化缺乏基督价值观的背景下,我怀疑只有对基督信仰了解的人才能识别其暗语,非信徒在阅读时是否会有一些疑问呢?(虽然那些疑问只是非常细微的局部,并不影响读者对故事整体的体会)无论如何,北村是在尝试一种新的写作,以基督信仰为内核展开的叙事,这在当代汉语文学里是没有前车可鉴的。

这里有在线阅读版,但读起来似乎不那么自在,仅供参考。http://www.ddwenxue.com/html/hyjd/cplz/20080916/2219.html

推荐阅读《当代艺术的人文追思》

撒把盐按:查常平博士的一套新书《当代艺术的人文追思(1997-2007)》上市,发来后记,立马阅读,甚为感动。作者持守人文精神的立场,以过去十年中国当代艺术现场中的某些个案为线索,梳理自己独特的学术进路,提出严谨而具开拓性的“基于作品而不限于作品、通过作品而不背离作品、为了作品而不媚于艺术家”的人文批评观,作者以严谨慎密的逻辑对当下浮躁的当代艺术问题、文化误读进行了澄清与批评,点到为止,犀利而中肯。这在当下批评家失语艺术家失身的年代,尤为可贵,这样的价值不只是因为我们稀缺诚实而显得珍贵,更因其所持守的人文精神之信念并对真理的敬畏,对人类生命的关怀,对艺术中神圣向度的吁求,显得格外宝贵。故此特别推荐给艺术界的朋友。

【序言】

当代艺术的批评,大致可以分为学理性的人文批评与感想性的新闻批评。自八五新潮以来,汉语批评界的大多数艺术评论,都属于新闻写作:一个艺术观念、
一段对作品的感觉性的文字、几句文化性的乃至艺术史的联想。人文批评强调利用当代人文学(哲学、宗教学、历史学、语言学、神学、艺术史、美学)的丰富的知
识、思想对当代艺术中的作品、展览、艺术家之类现象展开深度的个案研究,以在中国当代艺术评论界逐渐形成一种孜孜追思的、研究性写作风气。

人文批评,不拒斥从社会科学(伦理、法律、经济、政治、传播学)与自然科学的视角审视当代艺术现象。但是,这种审视的目的,在于建立艺术爱者内在的
文化心理结构和人类的文化精神结构,在最低层面上引导人生成为个体生命的存在者、在最高层面上推进人类共同体的形成。前现代的汉语文化传统,总是以民族主
义、国家主义、本土化、东西方之类亚人类价值观为核心。作为实践文化现代性的一种方式,人文批评对于驱除这种亚人类价值观的巫魅统治具有不可推卸的责任。
因为,艺术是人的开放性的精神活动,它不受任何人为的族群的、地域的障碍的制约;艺术是人的个体性的意识活动,它以独立的批判精神拒绝任何随波逐流的附
庸;艺术是人的人类性的文化活动,它在批判中建立以满足人的自由创造为目的的人类共同体。

人文批评的目的,就是要从俗世化的艺术现象中开掘当代中国艺术相对于神圣而言的世俗的、精神的、超越性的向度,展开对当代艺术中盛行的俗世价值观的
批判性反思。这些价值观,包括物质主义与肉身主义的世界观、消费主义与享乐主义的人生观、实利主义与现世主义的认识论。如果当代中国艺术不承受神圣而非神
秘的精神之在,它就只能停留在人之精神的高度,一种和肉身同质的、有限的、丧失终极批判能力的高度;它必然在俗世化的符号图像中辗转挪移、颠覆重生。

为了倡导更多的人文学者与批评家推进人文批评的理想,我在广西师范大学出版社支持下致力于编辑出版“人文批评”丛书。愿得到志同道合之君的批评眷注!

【简介】

《当代艺术的人文追思(1997-2007)》上卷以当代艺术中的公共艺术、水墨、油画、装置、行为等艺术现象为深度个案研究对象,从先验艺术论、
感性文化批评的角度和当代艺术的问题意识域展开了对当代艺术的批判性反思言说,尤其针对艺术的多元性与新保守主义、艺术意义的生成、当代艺术的边缘化等进
行人文学的反省。该著作是作者十多年来对当代艺术实施学者性批评的结果,标志着当代艺术的批评不再囿于八五时期以来的新闻性批评的模式,在艺术界开启了一
种人文学批评的新进路。

【目录】

上卷
1.作品阐释
当代文化与雕塑
文化材质中的意义凸显
公共艺术的六种特性
光的形而下
当代艺术的公共性与个人性
多媒介的水墨实验
实验水墨的另类批评
水墨的个体化与艺术化
传统与当代的共在意象命名
从刘子建的阅读史看艺术作品的命名
实验水墨的典范路向
极限实验
静穆与喧嚣
色彩置换与观念介入
边缘艺术的主流精神
艺术书写的边缘突进与原初图式
虚拟转向:从图式关怀到主题关怀
身份的根源
女性与女人的交往
另类历史的书写
场景:媒材与观念
观念艺术的价值二元性
艺术的侍奉与复制的效应
艺术书写与十字架的吁请
艺术话语权力的社会性、历史性
2.理论预设
论有限批评
感性文化批评范式
基督教艺术的边界
当代艺术中的拯救意识
艺术批评中的亚人类价值观
艺术多元的边界与新保守主义
超越索绪尔之后
经济为艺术服务
精神样式的守护人
当代艺术的边缘化

下卷
3.生态艺术
场景与生态艺术
生态艺术兴起的历史背景
生态艺术拓展的价值域界
4.展览扫描
从女性的到女人的存在根源
人与自然的境遇
生态艺术的神学背景
书的缺席与场景凸现
另类呼告
越过生命之夜
无样板NO架上
以艺术的心为心
策展人的不作为
装置、行为的现场与起源
5.艺术生态
精神的还乡
文化名城的生态与民间
先锋艺术在成都:坚守、古城与“719”
公众心目中的先锋艺术:生命、环境与互动
先锋艺术的文化素描:生态、人文与场景
当代艺术与都市的关系逻辑
6.文本辩难
批评家的素质
现代艺术虚无论
艺术肉身论与亚人类价值观
为历史书写艺术简历
附录1 艺术的本质论纲(1987)
附录2 庄子学派的前先验艺术观(1990)
附录3 访谈艺术究竟是为了什么?(2001)
附录4 对话
地下室隐语(1999)
艺术域界的新视点(1999)
媒材的庆典(2000)
消费主义时代的人文诉求(2007)
后记

阅读后记:http://www.frchina.net/data/personArticle.php?id=8289

相约星期二

由于一堂英语课家庭作业我开始阅读《相约星期二》英文原著(Tuesdays With Morrie),但英文水平有限,虽然读懂了大部分,但仍然觉得像是隔了一层纱,雾蒙蒙的。于是找到中文版读了一遍。主人翁莫里是个具有宗教情操的人,懂得人生的独特价值,有自己的世界观,他对年轻人所教导的负责任、要有同情心、给予、奉献、相爱等等都十分鼓舞今天失落的年轻一代……于是他的格言便是“相爱或者死亡”。以至于他对感情特别敏感,他十分眷恋甚至依赖与好友的相处(甚至身体接触)。

然而说实话,这本畅销书始终没能撩起我的激情,因为它不够彻底,或者说莫里的世界观仍不够彻底不够清晰,他用他教导劝化的恩赐身体力行了对“彼此相爱”的信念(也就是耶稣归纳的两条最大诫命的第二条“你们要彼此相爱”),并且拥有自己独立的人格态度,然而在生命的深度上缺乏一个根基,也就是最大诫命的第一条“尽心尽意尽力尽性爱主你的上帝”,这或许源于他的童年遭遇(很早的独立生活),或许源于他对上帝的不满(他认为上帝对约伯太过分了)。然而一个能彼此相爱的人群、社区,其中的人却不相信一个“爱的源头”,这样的结果便是流于宗教情操的浪漫情结,将自己比喻为一只蝴蝶或者浪花,实则是无依生命的飘荡写照。他问上帝:“我能变成天使吗?”由此,一个奉献毕生爱人如己泰然临终的人却在造物主与被造物之间含混不清,出于谨慎,将自义作为圣化天使的砝码留给自己,将盼望永生的意愿丢给上帝,于此,《相约星期二》也就成了一碗与《读者文摘》相当水平的“心灵鸡汤”。但无论如何,在当今心灵价值匮乏的中国社会,仍旧特别需要这样自诩为“一个终生的教师”并委身在年轻人中的榜样。问题是,在我们的文化社会里是否预备好了这样一份可以当作“心灵鸡汤”的宗教情操?

用爱赢得胜利

二战期间,纳粹迫害犹太人甚残酷,满街的枪弹供犹太人饮,一个名叫卡洛尔的犹太人被逼躲到一家裁缝店,遇到老裁缝,有如下对话:

老裁缝:我们会用爱赢得胜利,绝不是靠枪。

卡洛尔:纳粹就在门前,你怎能说出这样的话?

老裁缝:纳粹会灭亡,因为邪恶会自我吞噬。可是……

卡洛尔:可是,如果爱战胜不了,纳粹会用另一个名字再度复活,这就是你想说的吗?

老裁缝:完全正确。

以上对话选自电影《教宗若望·保禄二世前传》,一部绝对值得观看的片子,尽管有2张DVD,但花去人生3个小时的时间来经历爱和生命在绝望时期所面临的巨大挑战,寻思爱和生命的崇尚意义,是完全值得的。